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- 持續進修基金
- 營運工程師學會
- 學生資助辦事處
- 中國機械工程學會

Bonded Logistics Center
Bonded Logistics Center(Type A)

Bonded Logistics Center (Type A) is a relationship business in mainland China on the bonded type, Type A refers to a logistics company, mainly to meet the logistics needs of multinational companies within the group launched bonded warehousing, simple processing, and distribution of place, this model started in Shanghai Minhang District pilot.

Bonded Logistics Center (Type A) can be divided into "Common Type of Logistics Center" and "Self-Use Logistics Center."

"Common-Type Logistics Center" refers to warehousing and logistics business, specializing in corporate business in China, to provide the community with comprehensive services, bonded warehousing logistics Customs control places.

"Self-Use Logistics Center" refers to the corporate business in China, only to the enterprise or the enterprise group members within the customs bonded warehousing logistics services monitoring sites.

Bonded Logistics Center (Type A) enterprises shall meet the following qualifications: (a) The registration by the administrative department for industry and commerce registration, independent corporate legal personality; (b) The registered capital of not less than 300 million yuan; (c) Have to pay customs tax and ability to fulfill other legal obligations; (d)Having a specialized business premises for Storage of goods and own the land use rights of the business premises. If leaseing land and business premises from other's,the leaseing term must not less than three years; (e) Shall holding a special business license approval documents for storage of special permit goods; (f) For the of business"Self-Use Logistics Center" , the annual import and export amount (including the deep processing carry-over) in the eastern region must not less than $ 200 million, in the central and western regions must not less than $ 50 million; (g) With a customs management system meeting regulatory requirements and an accounting system that meet the accounting requirements.

Bonded Logistics Center(Type B)

Bonded logistics center (Type B) is bonded by a number of companies concentrated in the space layout, with a certain scale and comprehensive services, and link domestic and foreign markets and set the logistics area. In this area, can have a number of bonded logistics enterprise, to carry out bonded storage, logistics and distribution, international transit, simple processing and import and export trade business. A closed supervision areas of customs, that supervise the bonded logistics center (Type B) with the regionalization of export processing zones regulatory model and the closed network management with a 24-hour working system by customs this model having a pilot in the Suzhou Industrial Park .

Having the approval of the Customs,the following goods can be deposited into Bonded Logistics Center (Type B): (a) Domestic exports; (b) Re-exports and international transit of goods; (c) Temporary foreign goods; (d) Processing trade goods for imports and exports; (e) Materials and spare parts for the maintenance of international ships and aircraft; (f) Spare parts for the maintenance of imported foreign products; (g) The general trade goods that pending for customs procedures; (h) The other goods that pending for customs procedures with a approved from the customs;

Within Bonded Logistics Center (Type B), enterprise can engage the following business: (a) Bonded Storage of import and export cargo and other goods that pending for customs procedures; (b) To carry out simple processing of circulation and value-added services foe the stored goods ; (c) Global sourcing and international distribution; (d) Re-export and international transit; (e) other international logistics material that approved by the customs.

Within the Bonded Logistics Center (Type B), enterprise shall not engage the following business: (a) Commercial retail; (b) Production and manufacturing; (c) Maintenance, renovation and dismantling; (d) Storage of the country prohibited export goods, as well as the goods that endangering public safety, public health or the health, public morality or the goods that having import and export restrictions in the country ; (e) The non-bonded goods that clearly defined in laws and administrative regulations; (f) Other non-logistics center related business.

Bonded logistics center (Type B) within the enterprise should meet the following conditions: (a) An independent legal personality or the special circumstances of the branches of foreign enterprises; (b) Enterprises with independent legal person qualification minimum amount of registered capital of 5 million yuan; An enterprise branch offices, the company's registered capital of not less than 10 million yuan; (c) Have to pay customs tax and the ability to fulfill other legal obligations; (d) Establishing the requirements of customs supervision and with the computer management system Customs networking; (e) Have specialized in the logistics center store goods under customs supervision in place.

(Quote from the article "Wikipedia" page)

Track and trace

In distribution and logistics of many types of products, track and trace or tracking and tracing, concerns a process of determining the current and past locations (and other information) of a unique item or property.

This concept can be supported by means of reckoning and reporting of the position of vehicles and containers with the property of concern, stored, for example, in a real-time database. This approach leaves the task to compose a coherent depiction of the subsequent status reports.

Another approach is to report the arrival or departure of the object and recording the identification of the object, the location where observed, the time, and the status. This approach leaves the task to verify the reports regarding consistency and completeness. An example of this method might be the package tracking provided by shippers, such as Deutsche Post, United Parcel Service, AirRoad, or FedEx.

(Quote from the article "Wikipedia" page)

Military logistics

Military logistics

Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. In its most comprehensive sense, it is those aspects or military operations that deal with:

• Design, development, acquisition, storage, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel.
• Transport of personnel.
• Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities.
• Acquisition or furnishing of services.
• Medical and health service support.

Logistics, occasionally referred to as "combat service support", must address highly uncertain conditions. While perfect forecasts are rarely possible (this is also true in most sciences) forecasts models can reduce uncertainty about what supplies or services will be needed, where and when they will be needed, or the best way to provide them.

Ultimately, responsible officials must make judgments on these matters, sometimes using intuition and scientifically weighing alternatives as the situation requires and permits. Their judgments must be based not only upon professional knowledge of the numerous aspects of logistics itself but also upon an understanding of the interplay of closely related military considerations such as strategy, tactics, intelligence, training, personnel, and finance.

However, case studies have shown that more quantitative, statistical analysis are often a significant improvement on human judgment. One such recent example is the use of Applied Information Economics by the Office of Naval Research and the Marine Corps for forecasting bulk fuel requirements for the battlefield.

In major military conflicts, logistics matters are often crucial in deciding the overall outcome of wars. For instance, tonnage war - the bulk sinking of cargo ships - was a crucial factor in World War II.

The successful Allied anti-submarine campaign and the failure of the German Navy to sink enough cargo in the Battle of the Atlantic allowed Britain to stay in the war and establish the second front against the Nazis; by contrast, the successful U.S. submarine campaign against Japanese maritime shipping across Asian waters effectively crippled its economy and its military production capabilities.

More generally, protecting one's own supply lines and attacking those of an enemy is a fundamental military strategy; an example of this as a purely logistical campaign for the military means of implementing strategic policy was the Berlin Airlift.

Military logistics has pioneered a number of techniques that have since become widely deployed in the commercial world. Operations research grew out of WWII military logistics efforts. Likewise, military logistics borrows from methods first introduced to the commercial world.

The Kargil Conflict in 1999 between India and Pakistan also referred to as Operation Vijay (Victory in Hindi) is one of the most recent examples of high altitude warfare in mountainous terrain that posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides. The Stallion which forms the bulk of the Indian Army's logistical vehicles proved its reliability and serviceability with 95% operational availability during the operation.

"China's Ancient Baggage"

Logistics ago in ancient China has been known as The Baggage, then gradually changed in modern logistics. First proposed to replace the baggage logistics scholars unknown.

The word "logistics" is derived from the Greek adjective logistikos meaning "skilled in calculating". The first administrative use of the word was in Roman and Byzantine times when there was a military administrative official with the title Logista. At that time, the word apparently implied a skill involved in mathematical computations.
Research indicates that its first use in relation to an organized military administrative science was by the Swiss writer, Antoine-Henri Jomini, who, in 1838, devised a theory of war on the trinity of strategy, ground tactics, and logistics. The French still use the words logistique and loger with the meaning "to quarter".
The military activity known as logistics probably is as old as war itself. In the early history of man when the first wars were fought, each man had to find his own food, stones, and knotted clubs. Each warrior was responsible for foraging for his own food and firewood.
Not until later, when fighters joined as groups and fighting groups became larger, was there any basis for designating certain men to specialize in providing food and weapons to the combatants. The men who provided support to the fighters constituted the first logistics organization.
By the seventeenth century, the French were using a magazine system to keep a network of frontier towns supplied for sieges and to provide for campaigns beyond their borders.[2] The American Civil War saw the introduction of railways for transport of personnel, supplies and heavy field pieces.
Until the Napoleonic wars, the military supply was ensured by looting, requisition or private companies. In 1807, Napoleon created the first Train regiments, entirely dedicated to the supply and the transport of the equipment.
During the Seven Weeks War, railways enabled the swift mobilization of the Prussian Army, but the problem of moving supplies from the end of rail lines to units at the front resulted in nearly 18,000 tons trapped on trains unable to be unloaded to ground transport. The Prussian use of railways during the Franco-Prussian War is often cited as a prime example of logistic modernizations, but the advantages of maneuver were often gained by abandoning supply lines that became hopelessly congested with rear-area traffic.
During World War I, unrestricted submarine warfare had a significant impact on the ability of Britain's allies to keep shipping lanes open, while the great size of the German Army proved too much for its railways to support except while immobilized in trench warfare.

(Quote from the article "Wikipedia" page)


A logistician is a professional logistics practitioner. Professional logisticians are often certified by professional associations. One can either work in a pure logistics company such as shipping line, airport or freight forwarder or within the logistics department of a company. However, as mentioned previously, logistics is a very broad field encompassing procurement, production, distribution and disposal activities. Hence, the career perspectives are very broad also. A new trend in the industry are the 4 PL - consulting companies offering logistics services. They hire students with a BA or MA in International Logistics.

Some universities and academic institutions train students as logisticians, offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs.

(Quote from the article "Wikipedia" page)

Logistics Management

Logistics is that part of the supply chain which plans, implements and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer and legal requirements. A professional working in the field of logistics management is called a logistician.


Logistics management is known by many names, the most common are as follows:


Materials Management
Channel Management
Distribution (or Physical Distribution)
Business or Logistics Management
Supply Chain Management


The Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport (CILT) was established in the United Kingdom in 1919 and was granted a Royal Charter in 1926. The Chartered Institute is one of the professional bodies or institutions, for the logistics and transport sectors, that offers professional qualifications or degrees in logistics management.

(Quote from the article "Wikipedia" page)

Logistics Systems Theory

Logistics Systems Theory is one of the theory in the Logistics System. One of the view was, in the process of logistics , the Logistics System is constitute of six elements those are the fluid, the carrier, flow, flow, flow, flow with the fluid, the carrier, flow, flow, flow, flow between the six elements of logistics and other constraints, constitute the entire logistics system. But there are also claims that only five elements. In the logistics area of ​​expertise, the hardware alone is not enough, the most important is the sea, land, air, train, which links all transport lines (Connectivity), but also the importance of storage can not be ignored.

Today, logistics management expertise to be used in trade, linking the entire world. Good logistics system also allows an item to easily travel around the world, to promote the globalization of trade. Logistics systems like the Internet can be like, to promote Globalization. In the trade, to further link with the world, we must rely on good logistics management system. We do a lot of goods are "travel" to the country before. Raw material may come from Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia may be processed, the production is in Taiwan, and finally the entrance to the United States. Product of the "travel" line is the Logistics Manager to plan, organize, direct, coordinate, control and supervision, the goal is to be fast and low overhead. Today, foreign enterprises have their own dedicated logistics system.

Logistician is a specialist position with accountants, lawyers, doctors or engineers the same.

(Quote from the article "Wikipedia" page)

Logistics Process

Logistics is a control of raw materials, finished products, finished products and information systems. "Logistics" or also known as the ultimate aim of the details, "Strategic Logistics and Transport" or "Transport Policy." of material from suppliers to those in need of physical movement, is to create a time value, place value and the value of certain processing activities. Logistics refers to the material supplier to the needs of those entities from the physical movement, which consists of a series of time value and space to create economic value of activities, including transportation, storage, distribution, packaging, handling, processing and distribution logistics, information processing and many other basic activities, is the unity of these activities.

Logistics was first in World War II, around the war supplies, the U.S. military to establish a "logistics" (logistics) prototype theory. Then "back" refers to the production of war materials, procurement, transport, rations and other activities arranged as a unified whole, in order to lower the cost of supplies of strategic materials, faster, better service. Later, the "logistics" system transplanted to the modern economic life, it gradually evolved into today's logistics. Logistics systems like the Internet can be like, to promote globalization. In the trade, to further link with the world, we must rely on good logistics management system. We do a lot of goods are "travel" to the country before. Raw material may come from Malaysia and Thailand, the processing may be in Singapore, the production is in China, and finally the entrance to the United States. Products, "traveled" "line is the Logistics Manager to plan, organize, direct, coordinate, control and supervision, so that all logistics activities to achieve optimal coordination and cooperation in order to reduce logistics costs and improve logistics efficiency and economic benefits. Goal is to time and low overhead.

(Quote from the article "Wikipedia" page)

Modern Logistics Technology

Modern Logistics Technology refers to the dynamic management methods, the use of modern machinery and equipment and information systems, to complete the entire operation of the logistics technology. Its application can be divided into two types of industrial and military.

Container Handling Unit Technology
Bulk Handling Technology
Automatic Storage System Technology
Flow Processing Technology
Logistics Packaging Technology
Logistics Information Technology

(Quote from the article "Wikipedia" page)

The First party to the Fifth party logistics

"First-Party Logistics"

A First-party logistics provider (abbreviated 1PL) is a firm or an individual that needs to have cargo, freight, goods, produce or merchandise transported from a point A to a point B. The term first-party logistics provider stands both for the cargo sender and for the cargo receiver.

A 1PL can be anything from a manufacturer, to a trader, buying office, importer/exporter, wholesaler, retailer, and a distributor in the international commerce field. It can also be institutions such as government department, NGO, associations, military, and post. An individual or a family moving from one place to another also needs to have its personal effects(goods/things) transported from their place of origin to their new place, and is considered as a first-party logistics provider.

Typically the first-party logistics providers subcontract their transportation's needs to 2PLs and 3PLs, which are companies specialized in transportation. This helps the 1PL to benefit from cheaper transportation prices thanks to the specialization of the 2PLs and 3PLs, and the subsequent economies of scale. The transportation needed by the 1PL can be anything from transportation by ship, barge, aircraft, train, van or truck.

"Second party Logistics"

A Second-party logistics provider (abbreviated 2PL) is an asset-based carrier, which actually owns the means of transportation.

Second-party logistics providers are:
•shipping lines, which own, lease, or charter their ships,
•airlines, which own, lease, or charter their planes,
•truck companies, which own, or lease their trucks,
•barge companies, which own, lease, or charter their barge,
•rail companies, which own their trains,
•warehouse owners.

In the transportation industry, the second-party logistics providers are segmented between different categories of transportation:
seafreight, which regroups shipping lines and barge companies,
airfreight, which regroups the airlines, as well as the cargo helicopter companies,
trucking, which regroups the truck companies and the van companies,
railways, which regroups the rail companies,
warehousing and logistics.

"Third-Party Logistics"

A third-party logistics provider (abbreviated 3PL, or sometimes TPL) is a firm that provides a one stop shop service to its customers of outsourced (or "third party") logistics services for part, or all of their supply chain management functions.
Third party logistics providers typically specialize in integrated operation, warehousing and transportation services that can be scaled and customized to customers' needs based on market conditions and the demands and delivery service requirements for their products and materials.

According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals, 3PL is defined as: "A firm [that] provides multiple logistics services for use by customers. Preferably, these services are integrated, or bundled together, by the provider. Among the services 3PLs provide are transportation, warehousing, cross-docking, inventory management, packaging, and freight forwarding."

Third-party logistics providers
freight forwarders
courier companies
other companies integrating & offering subcontracted logistics and transportation services
Hertz and Alfredsson (2003) describe four categories of 3PL providers:
Standard 3PL provider: this is the most basic form of a 3PL provider. They would perform activities such as, pick and pack, warehousing, and distribution (business) – the most basic functions of logistics. For a majority of these firms, the 3PL function is not their main activity.
Service developer: this type of 3PL provider will offer their customers advanced value-added services such as: tracking and tracing, cross-docking, specific packaging, or providing a unique security system. A solid IT foundation and a focus on economies of scale and scope will enable this type of 3PL provider to perform these types of tasks.
The customer adapter: this type of 3PL provider comes in at the request of the customer and essentially takes over complete control of the company's logistics activities. The 3PL provider improves the logistics dramatically, but do not develop a new service. The customer base for this type of 3PL provider is typically quite small.
The customer developer: this is the highest level that a 3PL provider can attain with respect to its processes and activities. This occurs when the 3PL provider integrates itself with the customer and takes over their entire logistics function. These providers will have few customers, but will perform extensive and detailed tasks for them.

Non Asset-based Logistics Providers
Advancements in technology and the associated increases in supply chain visibility and inter-company communications have given rise to a relatively new model for third-party logistics operations – the "non-asset based logistics provider." Non-asset based providers perform functions such as consultation on packaging and transportation, freight quoting, financial settlement, auditing, tracking, customer service and issue resolution. However, they don't employ any truck drivers or warehouse personnel, and they don't own any physical freight distribution assets of their own – no trucks, no storage trailers, no pallets, and no warehousing. A non-assets based provider consists of a team of domain experts with accumulated freight industry expertise and information technology assets. They fill a role similar to freight agents or brokers, but maintain a significantly greater degree of "hands on" involvement in the transportation of products.
To be useful, providers must show their customers a benefit in financial and operational terms by leveraging exceptional expertise and ability in the areas of operations, negotiations, and customer service in a way that complements its customers' preexisting physical assets.
On-Demand Transportation
On-Demand Transportation is a relatively new term coined by 3PL providers to describe their brokerage, ad-hoc, and "flyer" service offerings.
On-Demand Transportation has become a mandatory capability for today's successful 3PL providers in offering client specific solutions to supply chain needs.
These shipments do not usually move under the "lowest rate wins" scenario and can be very profitable to the 3PL that wins the business. The cost quoted to customers for On-Demand services are based on specific circumstances and availability and can differ greatly from normal "published" rates.
On-Demand Transportation is a niche that continues to grow and evolve within the 3PL industry.
Specific modes of transport that may be subject to the on-demand model include (but are not limited to) the following:
•FTL, or Full Truck Load
•Hotshot (direct, exclusive courier)
•Next Flight Out, sometimes also referred to as Best Flight Out (commercial airline shipping)
•International Expedited

"Fourth Party Logistics"

A Fourth-party logistics provider (abbreviated 4PL), lead logistics provider, or 4th Party Logistics provider, is a consulting firm specialized in logistics, transportation, and supply chain management. Typical fourth-party logistics providers are SCMO, CPCS, BMT, Deloitte, LOC, Capgemini, 3t Europe, Morpheus, GL Noble Denton, Brookes Bell, T&MC,[dead link] Global Maritime, WSL Procurus Ltd, AMA - Andrew Moore & Associates, and Accenture.
As the 4PL industry is still in its infancy and currently being created throughout the world (Blue Ocean Strategy), its definition and function still leads to a lot of confusion, even for professionals of the transportation industry.
The term 4PL is generally considered to have been introduced by Accenture, which registered it as a trademark in 1996. Accenture described the 4PL as an "integrator that assembles the resources, capabilities, and technology of its own organization and other organizations to design, supply chain solutions".
The trademark was later abandoned, and the term has become a part of the public domain.
A fourth-party logistics provider is an independent, singularly accountable, non-asset based integrator of a client's supply and demand chains.
To avoid any conflict of interest, it is important that this fourth-party logistics provider be non-asset based, as far as logistics, transportation, and supply chain management assets are concerned. 4PL use 2PLs and/or 3PLs to supply service to customers, owning only computer systems and intellectual capital.
Nowadays advisors, consultants, software companies and even 3PLs lay claim to being a 4PL. This is because any company advising a customer on logistics, transportation, and supply chain matters feels it may somehow claim to be a 4PL. This is effectively the case only when the principle of neutrality is respected, and that any conflict of interest is avoided.
A fourth-party logistics provider must also offer services considering a 360 degree view, which is not focused on its ability to implement the recommendations it gives, but on all the options available in the market.

"Fifth Party Logistics"

Fifth Party Logistics is dedicated to the First, Second, Third and Fourth Party Logistics information platform to provide, supply chain logistics optimization, supply chain integration, supply chain and other value-added services, capital operation activities. The advantage is the Fifth Party Logistics supply chain information and resources. Is not practical to assume a specific logistics activities.

(Quote from the article "Wikipedia" page)